Plastics are used in a wide variety of items on a daily basis. Now a days, plastics have been started to be used in structural materials in transportation equipment like aircraft, automobiles due to its strength and light-weight nature. For these applications, it is vital to know the mechanical strength properties of these plastics. In order to measure product strength and quality, plastic materials must undergo tensile testing. The results collected from tensile tests are used to design parts that can bear forces applied to them. Tensile tests are used during the quality checking process of the plastic material.
The tensile test results reveal various calculations. Some of them are tensile strength at the time of yield and at the break, tensile modulus, strain, elongation and percent elongation at yield, elongation and percent elongation at break.
Universal Testing machine (UTM) stretch, bend and compress test samples at controlled test speeds. They are used to evaluate the static product and material strength properties that include tensile, compression, shear, and flexure etc. Tensile test machines are UTM that is configured to measure the tensile strength of samples. These testers measure characteristics such as yield strength, elongation and modulus. These machines are configured as per requirement by the engineers with controller, grips and accessories.
Tensile Strength Tester performs several types of tensile and compression tests on various materials. Tensile testing is the most common applications for UTM, a tensile test evaluates rigidness, stretch ability and stiffness of the material when pulled apart till it breaks.
The procedure is simple in which the sample is subjected to uni-axial load until it fractures. It provides information about elasticity limit, yield point, point of proportionality and factors that include true breaking stress, fracture point load etc.
Tensile elongation of test material is the percentage increase in length that occurs before it breaks under tension. The elongation values of many hundred percent are common for elastomers. Strong plastics like fiber show values under 5%. The combination of high tensile strength and high elongation leads to materials of high toughness.
Tensile modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to elastic strain in tension. A high tensile modulus defines the material strong enough i.e. more stress is needed to produce a given amount of strain. In polymers, the tensile modulus and compressive modulus varies widely. The variation can be 50% or greater which depends on plastic type, reinforcing agents and processing methods.
Tensile Testing Machine is universal test machines measure the tensile strength of samples. So, you must select the appropriate machine to determine size and strength characteristics.